Spanish Orthography: y or ll?

¡Hola a todos!


This week, I’m talking about an orthography topic: when to use Y and when to use LL?

There are a lot of rules, and also exceptions (as usual), so what I’m doing today is sharing an infographic with you 

which I tried to make as easy as possible. You can download it here

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

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¡Hasta la próxima!

Dieresis in Spanish

¡Hola a todos!

This week I’m talking about an orthographic topic: the diaeresis or dieresis. Let’s be a bit technical: in Linguistics, the dieresis is a diacritical mark consisting in two dots used over a vowel. The dieresis we have in Spanish will always be over the u, so: ü.

But it is a diacritical mark, as we said, so we don’t always need the dieresis over the letter u. Then, when do we use it?

In Spanish, we use the dieresis on the syllables gue, gui when the “u” must be pronounced, in words like ambigüedad or pingüino.

If we don’t use the dieresis, words will be pronounced in different ways, and this may cause a situation where we’ll be pronouncing a word that doesn’t exist.


Exercise: can you send me a message with words using dieresis in Spanish?


I hope that you liked this very short post and that it’s been clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review and practice this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

¡Hasta la próxima!

B or V?

¡Hola a todos!

Hope you are doing well. This week, I’m going to talk about an orthography and pronunciation topic: B and V in Spanish.


I’ll start with the pronunciation, because is one of the things that drive my students crazy, specially beginners. Why so? Because other languages, such as French or English, make the difference between /b/ and /v/ sound; but this is not what happens in Spanish, according to the RAE (Real Academia Española):

«No existe en español diferencia alguna en la pronunciación de las letras b y v. Las dos representan hoy el sonido bilabial sonoro /b/.»

If you visit the RAE website, you will verify that there’s no difference between B and V, as both are pronounced /b/.

But, why do we have the two letters if we only have one sound? Because of tradition. In Latin, both sounds were differenced, so Spanish kept both graphics in order to stick to Latin.

The RAE explains that there was a time when a difference was made in Spanish between /b/ and /v/, as an influence of English and French, for example, for these languages do distinguish both sounds. Furthermore, some people from Catalonia, Valencia or some places in America may pronounce /v/ due to the influence of the Amerindian or regional languages.

But since 1911, “the Academy explicitly quitted recommending this distinction”, so the pronunciation of B and V in Spanish is absolutely the same: /b/.


Many of my students like jokes and they tell me: “If they are pronounced the same, then I can write everything using only B or V, right?”. The answer is, definitely, NO. Spanish has orthography rules, and these rules are important; also, if you write certain words with B instead of V, for example, they might mean different things.

You can see the general rules for B and V on the attached pictures to this post.

And about those words whose meaning could change depending on the spelling, I give you some of them here, but there are a lot!


  • Baca ≠ Vaca

This is the most common one, I think. When we, Spanish natives, are at school learning how to write and face this two letters, teachers usually write La vaca está en la baca, which means “the cow is on the roof rack”.


  • Barón ≠ Varón

Barón is a baron, a title of nobility; but if you write it with V, you will be talking about a regular man, as varón means “male”.


  • Baya ≠ Vaya

Baya is easy, it’s a berry. But vaya can mean different things: it can be an interjection or the verb ir (to go): present subjunctive 1st person singular, present subjunctive 3rd person singular or imperative 3rd person singular.

You can remember the difference with the sentence ¡Vaya baya he encontrado!


  • Bello ≠ Vello

Something bello (masculine adjective) is something beautiful. A vello is a thin hair, like the one in the arms, or the bloom in a fruit. You can usually listen vello facial referring to the facial hair.

But remember, it is only for the thin hair; the hair in the head is called pelo, melena or cabellera.


  • Botar ≠ Votar

These two verbs are absolutely different: botar means “to bounce” and votar means “to vote”! Of course, all their forms when conjugating must maintain the B or V. It’s not the same to say votamos / botamos, and we must make the difference.


  • Grabar ≠ Gravar

Another example like the previous one: grabar means “to record” or “to engrave”, but gravar means “to levy”.


  • Sabia ≠ Savia

Sabia is an adjective to describe a wise woman (a wise man would be sabio), while savia is the sap, a “liquid transported by the conductive tissue of plants”.


  • Bienes ≠ Vienes

Bienes are goods, the patrimony a person or a company owns; vienes is present 2nd person singular for venir (to come; you come).


  • Cabo ≠ Cavo

Cabo is, among others, a cape, and also the ending part of some objects; cavo is present 1st person singular for cavar (to dig; I dig).

But, warning! Cabo is NOT present 1st person singular for caber (to fit); this form is yo quepo, as it’s an irregular verb for the 1st person.


  • Hierba ≠ Hierva

Hierba is the grass; hierva is present subjunctive 1st or 3rd person singular for hervir (to boil).


  • Tubo ≠ Tuvo

Tubo is a tube, a pipe; tuvo is simple perfect past 3rd person singular for tener (to have; he had).


Do you know other pair of words whose pronunciation is the same but their meaning is completely different? Write them below!

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¡Hasta la próxima!

Ahí hay un hombre que dice: “¡Ay!”.

Hello everyone!

I would like to introduce today an orthography topic, which is a very difficult issue for many Spanish students: “ahí”, “hay”, “ay”.

If you know what we are talking about, keep reading and find out the trick that will make you never mix them up again. It is about a very easy sentence: Ahí hay un hombre que dice: “¡Ay!”. What is that? It means There, there is a man saying “ouch!”.

Now we’re going to see what does every of these words mean.

To start with, “ahí” is a time adverb. It is usually learnt at the same time that “aquí” and “allí”. They talk about the proximity, both in time and space, of the action or the object we’re talking about. “Aquí” implies proximity, “ahí” indicates that something is a bit far, and “allí” talks about big distances.

If we keep going with the sentence, we find “hay”. This is one of the most frequent forms of the verb “haber”, that is, there is/there are. Is Spanish, we don’t make the difference among singular and plural as English does (finally, something that is easier in Spanish than in English!). An example of this could be the next sentence: En la foto hay un árbol y hay muchas flores.

Finally, we have “¡ay!”. This is an interjection, I mean, a word expressing the speaker’s feeling. In this case, the speaker is complaining because something hurts. It is the equivalent to English “ouch!”. Another example of this kind of words could be “¡uf!”, whose English translation is “phew!”.

Now that we’ve seen what’s the meaning of each word, we can already read the sentence Ahí hay un hombre que dice: “¡Ay!” and identify the different meanings of these homophones (words that sound like other words but mean different things).

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