Futuro simple o Futuro imperfecto de Indicativo

¡Hola a todos!

This week I’m talking about Spanish tenses again, this time about Futuro Simple de Indicativo.

Firstly, I’m going to tell you how to use this tense. Basically, we use it when talking about…

  • Future predictions. El año que viene ganaré la maratón.
  • Promises. Te llamaré cuando aterrice el avión.
  • Present assumptions. Imagino que tendrá hambre.

Now we know when to use it, let’s see how to form it. We only need to add the following endings to the base form of the verb (infinitivo):

We can also express the present in two other ways: we can either use Presente Simple de Indicativo (el tren sale a las tres de la tarde) or ir a + infinitivo (esta tarde voy a comprar una mesa nueva).

 

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Por y Para

¡Hola a todos!

 

Last month, I explained you the difference between por and durante, and I told you that por could also be a big problem when compared to para, so that’s what we’re going to learn or review today.

 

Let’s start with the uses of por:

  • The way to do something. Hablé con él por teléfono.
  • A reason. No pudimos ir a la playa por el mal tiempo.
  • A period of time that’s not accurate. Mis padres me visitarán por la tarde.
  • A non accurate location. La última vez lo vi por aquí, no sé dónde.
  • A change. Me dieron estos zapatos por mi vieja mochila.

 

And the main uses of para:

  • A future deadline. Los deberes son para el martes.
  • An intention or purpose. Te llamo para preguntarte algo.
  • A destination. Vamos para clase, ¿nos acompañas?
  • The addressee of an action. Esta carta es para Manuel.
  • An opinion. Para mi gusto, el vestido es demasiado oscuro.

 

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Spanish idioms with countries

¡Hola a todos!

 

Today I’d like to talk again about Spanish Idioms! What topic this time? Well… I’ve already talked to you about Spanish Idioms with Spanish cities, and this time I’m talking about Spanish Idioms with other countries or nationalities. Not all of them are idioms, but you’ll also find some frequent collocations we use in Spanish.

Ready? There we go!

 

Me suena a chino

This is the Spanish equivalent to “sounds like Greek to me”, only that we don’t use Greek language, but Chinese!

 

Montaña rusa

We call “Russian mountain” to the roller-coasters we can find at fairs or amusement parks.

 

Ensaladilla rusa

The “Russian salad” is a salad consisting in boiled potatoes, boiled eggs, mayonnaise and different vegetables (depending on every person’s tastes) which is served cool. Perfect for summer!

 

Hacerse el sueco

This is one of my favourites, meaning something like playing dumb. For example:

¿Por qué no me contestaste el otro día? ¡Te llamé por la calle y te hiciste el sueco!

 

Cuento chino

The “Chinese tale” is an elaborated lie that somebody tells. I must emphasize the elaborated, because it’s usually a lie told within a long and hardly believable story.

 

Hablando del rey de Roma, por la puerta asoma

This is the Spanish way to say “talk of the devil, here he is!”, but we talk about Rome’s King instead of the devil.

 

Cabeza de turco

The “Turkish head” is an innocent person who will be blamed in order to avoid the real responsibles to be judged. For example:

Necesitamos encontrar a los verdaderos asesinos, este chico solo es un cabeza de turco.

 

No hay moros en la costa

We use this expression if there’s no risk of being brought to light. It has its origins in ancient times, when the Spanish coasts were usually attacked by the North African people (moorish, “moros”) and Spanish guards were in constant guard. If they saw the enemies coming, they said “hay moros en la costa”, and today we still use the negative form of this expression to say there’s no danger.

 

Hacer el indio

In Spanish, it means mess around, to have a good time playing dumb. But I’ve found out that, more than 300 years ago, it didn’t have the same meaning: it meant to assume humiliations with no complain. It has changed a little bit, hasn’t it?

 

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Spanish Orthography: y or ll?

¡Hola a todos!

 

This week, I’m talking about an orthography topic: when to use Y and when to use LL?

There are a lot of rules, and also exceptions (as usual), so what I’m doing today is sharing an infographic with you 

which I tried to make as easy as possible. You can download it here

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Pluscuamperfecto de Indicativo

¡Hola a todos!

 

This week I’m talking about Spanish tenses again, this time about pluscuamperfecto.

 

Firstly, I’m going to tell you how to use this tense. Basically, we use it when talking about finished past actions that are previous to another past moment. In other words, some students like to say “it’s the past of the past”.

Cuando yo llegué, Pedro ya se había ido. (Es decir, primero Pedro se va, después llego yo)

Ya había comido antes de venir. (Primero como, luego vengo)

 

Now we know when to use it, let’s see how to form it. Let’s start with the form for the regular verbs:

But, how about the irregular verbs? Well, in this chart you can see the first person of the main irregular verbs (but they’re not all!). If you want to get the complete chart, you can have it here together with the other past tenses in Spanish.

This is all for today. In case you missed the posts about Pretérito Imperfecto, Pretérito Indefinido and Pretérito Perfecto, you can read them following the links.

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Por y durante

¡Hola a todos!

 

This week I’m going to explain something that usually confuses Spanish students: por and durante.

In some Spanish speaking countries in America, people use both of them with the same meaning, but in Spain there’s a slight difference.

 

Durante will always be referring to a period of time. For example, if we say:

Estuve en las Canarias durante dos semanas. (I went to the Canary Islands for two weeks.)

Sometimes, we can also omit durante, and just say “Estuve en las Canarias dos semanas”.

 

About por, you can listen it in America as a synonym of durante, but I personally think that’s an anglicism. I’ve listened many times to my colleagues from America saying “por dos semanas”, and it’s natural for them, but not for me as Spanish. (This is an endless debate I don’t want to get in right now!)

The thing is that por is used in many situations, and maybe the most popular use of this preposition is the cause:

Cerrado por vacaciones. (Why is it closed?)

Me fui por aburrimiento. (Why did I leave?)

 

Por may also be a problem when compared to para, but I’ll explain this in another post.

 

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto de Indicativo

¡Hola a todos!

This week I’m talking about Spanish tenses again, specifically about the "Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto".

Firstly, I’m going to tell you how to use this tense. Basically, we use it when talking about past actions having an impact in the present or actions that started in the past but still have not ended.

Esta mañana he comido mucho. (Es decir, ahora no tengo hambre)

Este año ha sido muy duro para mí. (He tenido muchos problemas y estoy cansado o agobiado)

 

Now we know when to use it, let’s see how to form it. Let’s start with the form for the regular verbs:

But, how about the irregular verbs? Well, in this chart you can see the first person of the main irregular verbs (but they’re not all!). If you want to get the complete chart, you can have it here together with the other past tenses in Spanish.

This is all for today. If you missed the post about Pretérito Imperfecto and Pretérito Indefinido, you can read them following the links.

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Expresiones con colores (II)

¡Hola a todos!

Some time ago, I published some Spanish idioms related to colors (you can read it here in case you didn’t!), and I’m here today with the second part of these idioms!

 

Estar al rojo vivo

In Spanish, we say “to be in live red color” when something is at its peak, in the most interesting part. It could be similar to the English “to be on fire”.

No puedo dejar de mirar, el asunto está al rojo vivo.

 

Ser un rojo

I don’t know if this is used out of Spain, but Spanish people talk about “being a red” when we talk about Republicans during the Civil War.

En la Guerra Civil, todo era sobre rojos y fascistas.

 

Tener sangre azul

Those “having blue blood” were people belonging to nobility, wealthy people in ancient times. Once a teacher told me we use this expression because they didn’t have any kind of sunbath, and their skin were so clear that you could see the veins, and instead of red blood it looked like blue blood.

Antiguamente, si no eras de sangre azul, tenías que trabajar muy duro.

 

Poner verde a alguien

We “turn somebody into green” when we badmouth him/her.

No dejaba de poner verde a su hermano: decía que era un maleducado, estúpido…

 

Chiste verde

A “green joke” is, simply, a dirty joke. The most usual ones in Spain are about old people.

Me contó un chiste verde sobre un viejo y una chica joven.

 

A buenas horas mangas verdes

We say “good time, green sleeves” when something happens too late and is not useful anymore. This one has an historical origin, as the members of the Santa Hermandad (15th Century) were usually late when they were called to solve a problem. And yes, they used to wear clothes with green sleeves.

Sí, a buenas horas, mangas verdes. Has llegado cuando todo ha terminado.

 

Prensa rosa

The “pink press” is about gossips: fights, divorces, weddings…

La prensa rosa no deja en paz a Antonio Banderas.

 

Novela rosa

The “pink novel” is, obviously, a romantic novel.

Esta novela rosa lo tiene todo: romance, ruptura, drama, infidelidades…

 

Dinero negro

The “black money” is the same than in English: that money that has been got in a dirty or illegal way.

Tenía una cuenta en Suiza con millones en dinero negro.

 

Ponerse negro

We “turn into black” when we are tired, when we can’t bear anymore with something or somebody. Usually, it also includes some rage.

No te aguanto más, me estás poniendo negro.

 

Novela negra

The “black novel” is a thriller, a novel about detectives or police solving crimes.

Me encanta la novela negra, siempre resuelven los crímenes.

 

Pasar la noche en blanco

When we “stay the night in white”, means that we didn’t sleep at all during the night.

Estoy muy cansada, he pasado la noche en blanco.

 

Estar sin blanca

If you “are without a white”, you’re broke, you have no money at all.

No puedo ir de vacaciones este año, estoy sin blanca.

 

Do you want to know other Spanish idioms related to something specific? Let me know and I’ll prepare it for you!

 

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Perífrasis verbales en español

¡Hola a todos!

Many of my students usually ask me about this topic: perífrasis verbales. That’s why I’d like to try to quickly explain this.

The verbal periphrases are groups of two or more verbs meaning something together. They usually are made up from a conjugated verb, a link (but many periphrases don’t need it) and another verb in a non personal form (infinitive, gerund or participle).

In Spanish, periphrases may talk about the aspect of the verb or the speaker’s attitude. Let’s see some examples of each.

If we talk about the aspect, we will find different categories: actions about to start, ended actions, actions happening right now… Well, here are some examples:

  • Imminent actions: Estoy a punto de salir de casa.
  • Starting actions: Mi hijo empezó a hablar el mes pasado.
  • Happening actions: Se ha pasado estudiando toda la noche.
  • Ending actions: Los obreros han dejado de utilizar el martillo eléctrico. ¡Menos mal!
  • Usual actions: Suelo cenar con mis amigos todos los sábados.

If we talk about the speaker’s attitude, we can say, for example:

  • Obligation: Tienes que comprar huevos para la tortilla.
  • Permission: Papá dice que puedo ir al cine, ¿a qué hora nos vemos?
  • Probability: Debe de haber pasado algo grave, han venido incluso los bomberos.
  • Certainty: El ciervo tuvo que asustarse mucho con el disparo.
  • Approximation: El texto viene a decir que todos somos iguales.

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here. You can find a list (not complete, but very long) with Spanish periphrases.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Pretérito Perfecto Simple o Pretérito Indefinido de Indicativo

¡Hola a todos!

This week I’m back to talk about grammar, about Spanish tenses. I know it might me a bit boring when you learn the grammar, but you know we need it. I'll be sharing soon some podcasts with stories about Spain so you can practice the grammar in context. Stay tunned!

Firstly, I’m going to tell you when to use this tense:

- Finished past actions. We usually use it with specific dates and adverbs like el otro día, ayer, antes de ayer, anoche, el año pasado, la semana pasada…

El año pasado estuve de viaje en el sur de China.

Mi hermana se mudó a Valencia en 2009.

- When telling a story, consecutive actions.

Fuimos al restaurante y pedimos marisco. Cuando terminamos, pedimos la cuenta y nos marchamos.

- Interrupted actions in the past.

Estábamos hablando tranquilamente y, de repente, ¡un chico me robó el bolso!

Now we know when to use it, let’s see how to form it. Let’s start with the form for the regular verbs:

But, how about the irregular verbs? Well, in this chart you can see the first person of the main irregular verbs (but they’re not all!). If you want to get the complete chart, you can have it here together with the other past tenses in Spanish.

Also, if you missed the post about Pretérito Imperfecto, you can read it here.

I hope that you liked it and that it’s been crystal clear. All week long you will find some pictures on my Instagram and Facebook profiles to review this, so if you don’t follow me yet, follow me now!

If you have any question about this, don’t hesitate to ask me. Remember that you can study Spanish online with me, you can ask for a 30 minutes free trial lesson, where we will get to know each other and start your Spanish adventure!

Also, if you like my job and you want to support me so I can keep sharing all this with you, kindly have a look to my Patreon page here.

¡Hasta la próxima!